«Progesterone (P4) is an endogenoussteroid and progestogensex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species. It belongs to a group of steroid hormone called the progestogens, and is the major progestogen in the body. Progesterone has a variety of important functions in the body. It is also a crucial metabolic intermediate in the production of other endogenous steroids, including the sex hormone and the corticosteroid, and plays an important role in brain function as a neurosteroid.
In addition to its role as a natural hormone, progesterone is used as a medication, for instance in menopausal hormone therapy; for information on progesterone as a medication, see the progesterone (medication) article.
Progesterone is the most important progestogen in the body, the result of its action as a potent agonist of the nuclear progesterone receptor (nPR) (with an affinity of KD = 1 nM). In addition, progesterone is an agonist of the more recently discovered membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs), as well as a ligand of the PGRMC1 (progesterone receptor membrane component 1). Moreover, progesterone is also known to be an antagonist of the sigmaσ1 receptor, a negative allosteric modulator of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and a potent antagonist of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). Progesterone prevents MR activation by binding to this receptor with an affinity exceeding even those of aldosterone and glucocorticoids such as cortisol and corticosterone, and produces antimineralocorticoid effects, such as natriuresis, at physiological concentration. In addition, progesterone binds to and behaves as a partial agonist of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), albeit with very low potency (EC50 >100-fold less relative to cortisol).
Progesterone, through its neurosteroidactive metabolites such as 5α-dihydroprogesterone and allopregnanolone, acts indirectly as a positive allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor.
Progesterone and some of its metabolites, such as 5β-dihydroprogesterone, are agonists of the pregnane X receptor (PXR), albeit weakly so (EC50 >10 µM). In accordance, progesterone induces several hepaticcytochrome P450enzymes, such as CYP3A4, especially during pregnancy when concentration are much higher than usual. Perimenopausal women have been found to have greater CYP3A4 activity relative to men and postmenopausal women, and it has been inferred that this may be due to the higher progesterone levels present in perimenopausal women.
Progesterone modulates the activity of CatSper (cation channels of sperm) voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. Since eggs release progesterone, sperm may use progesterone as a homing signal to swim toward eggs (chemotaxis). As a result, it has been suggested that substances that block the progesterone binding site on CatSper channels could potentially be used in male contraception.
Progesterone has a number of physiological effects that are amplified in the presence of estrogen. Estrogen through estrogen receptors (ERs) induce or upregulate the expression of the PR. One example of this is in breast tissue, where estrogen allow progesterone to mediate lobuloalveolar development.
Elevated levels of progesterone potently reduce the sodium-retaining activity of aldosterone, resulting in natriuresis and a reduction in extracellular fluid volume. Progesterone withdrawal, on the other hand, is associated with a temporary increase in sodium retention (reduced natriuresis, with an increase in extracellular fluid volume) due to the compensatory increase in aldosterone production, which combats the blockade of the mineralocorticoid receptor by the previously elevated level of progesterone.
Progesterone has key effects via non-genomic signalling on human sperm as they migrate through the female tract before fertilization occurs, though the receptor(s) as yet remain unidentified. Detailed characterisation of the events occurring in sperm in response to progesterone has elucidated certain events including intracellular calcium transients and maintained changes, slow calcium oscillations, now thought to possibly regulate motility. It is produced by the ovaries. Progesterone has also been shown to demonstrate effects on octopus spermatozoa.
Progesterone is sometimes called the "hormone of pregnancy", and it has many roles relating to the development of the fetus:
The fetusmetabolizes placental progesterone in the production of adrenal steroids.
Progesterone plays an important role in breast development in women. In conjunction with prolactin, it mediates lobuloalveolar maturation of the mammary glands during pregnancy to allow for milk production and thus lactation and breastfeeding of offspring following parturition (childbirth).Estrogen induces expression of the PR in breast tissue and hence progesterone is dependent on estrogen to mediate lobuloalveolar development. It has been found that RANKL is a critical downstream mediator of progesterone-induced lobuloalveolar maturation. RANKL knockout mice show an almost identical mammary phenotype to PR knockout mice, including normal mammary ductal development but complete failure of the development of lobuloalveolar structures.» (wikipedia)
Do something with Progesterone
Lists what BioMindmap can do with its medical objects for demo purposes.
- See 31 Biolinks that connect Progesterone with other objects
- Group Biolinks by type — promoters and inhibitors separately
- Summarize how other objects relate to Progesterone
- There are 19 Evidences supporting 31 Progesterone Biolinks
Guide for Good Sources list of respected domains.
The ValidityScore showsthe quality of evidences, with max 9.9.
- Progesterone Mindmap — near connections
- Mindmap with ValidityScore 5.0 — near connections
- Mindmap of Progesterone. and Subnodes: .
- Find Path to another object.
- Build Custom Map
- Instream into nodes that connect into Progesterone.
- Outstream from nodes that go out from Progesterone.
- Promoters of Progesterone
- Add biolink i.e. «X increases Progesterone». Intuitively easy.
- Power-start: watch the Intro Video and Guide in Help Center
- Users improve Reputation by getting experienced and validated.
- Ask Telegram Bot to get quick Summary on any object.