«Methylene blue, also known as methylthioninium chloride, is a medication and dye. As a medication, it is mainly used to treat methemoglobinemia. Specifically, it is used to treat methemoglobin levels that are greater than 30% or in which there are symptoms despite oxygen therapy. It has previously been used for cyanide poisoning and urinary tract infections, but this use is no longer recommended. It is typically given by injection into a vein.
Common side effects include headache, vomiting, confusion, shortness of breath, and high blood pressure. Other side effects include serotonin syndrome, red blood cell breakdown, and allergic reactions. Use often turns the urine, sweat, and stool blue to green in color. While use during pregnancy may harm the baby, not using it in methemoglobinemia is likely more dangerous. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye. It works by converting the ferric iron in hemoglobin to ferrous iron.
Methylene blue was first prepared in 1876 by Heinrich Caro. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. In the United States, a 50 mg vial costs about 191.40 USD. In the United Kingdom, a 50 mg vial costs the NHS about £39.38.» (wikipedia)
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