Frequency and Circadian Timing of Eating May Influence Biomarkers of Inflammation and Insulin Resistance Associated with Breast Cancer Risk
Each 10 percent increase in the proportion of calories consumed in the evening was associated with a 3 percent increase in CRP. Conversely, eating one additional meal or snack per day was associated with an 8 percent reduction in CRP.
Ageing: Is there a role for arachidonic acid and other bioactive lipids? A review.
Ageing is inevitable. Recent studies suggest that it could be delayed. Low-grade systemic inflammation is seen in type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and endothelial dysfunction that are common with increasing age. In all these conditions, an alteration in arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism is seen in the form of increased formation of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and decreased production of anti-inflammatory lipoxins, resolvins, protectins and maresins and decreased activity of desaturases. Calorie restriction, exercise and parabiosis delay age-related changes that could be related to enhanced proliferation of stem cells, decrease in inflammation and transfer of GDF-11 (growth differentiation factor-11) and other related molecules from the young to the old, increase in the formation of lipoxin A4, resolvins, protectins and maresins, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and nitric oxide (NO); inhibition of ageing-related hypothalamic or brain IKK-β and NF-kB activation, decreased gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release resulting in increasedneurogenesis and consequent decelerated ageing. This suggests that hypothalamus participates in ageing process. N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) and lipid-derived signalling molecules can be tuned favorably under dietary restriction to extend lifespan and/or prevent advanced age associated diseases in an mTOR dependent pathway manner. Sulfur amino acid (SAA) restriction increasedhydrogen sulfide (H2S) production and protected tissues from hypoxia and tissue damage. Anti-inflammatory metabolites formed from AA such as LXA4, resolvins, protectins and maresins enhance production of NO, CO, H2S; suppressNF-kB expression and alter mTOR expression and thus, may aid in delaying ageing process. Dietary restriction and exerciseenhance AA metabolism to form LXA4, resolvins, protectins and maresins that have anti-inflammatory actions. AA and their metabolites also influence stem cell biology, enhanceneurogenesis to improvememory and augment autophagy to prolong life span. Thus, AA and other PUFA and their anti-inflammatory metabolites inhibitinflammation, augment stem cell proliferation, restore to normal lipid-derived signaling molecules and NO and H2S production, enhanceautophagy and prolong life span.