Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential

«Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential, or CHIP, is a common aging-related phenomenon in which hematopoietic stem cell (HSCs) or other early blood cell progenitors contribute to the formation of a genetically distinct subpopulation of blood cell.[1][2][3] As the name suggests, this subpopulation in the blood is characterized by a shared unique mutation in the cell' DNA; it is thought that this subpopulation is "clonally" derived from a single founding cell and is therefore made of genetic "clones" of the founder.[4][5][6][7] The establishment of a clonal population may occur when a stem or progenitor cell acquires one or more somatic mutations that give it a competitive advantage in hematopoiesis over the stem/progenitor cell without these mutations.[1][3] Alternatively, clonal hematopoiesis may arise without a driving mutation, through mechanisms such as neutral drift in the stem cell population.[8] Clonal hematopoiesis may occur in people who are completely healthy but has also been found in people with hematologic diseases.[1][9][10] The clonal population may vary in size depending on the person, where it can be less than 2% of the blood or, at the other end, can sometimes grow close to 100%.[4][9] The incidence of clonal hematopoiesis has been found to rise dramatically with age. Recent studies have demonstrated that less than 1% of the population under age 40 but approximately 10-20% of the population over age 70 has observable clonal hematopoiesis.[4][5][6] Having clonal hematopoiesis has been linked to a more than 10-fold increased risk of developing a blood cancer, though the overall likelihood is still low.[4][5] Clonal hematopoiesis does not typically give rise to noticeable symptoms, but does lead to increased risk of cardiovascular disease.[1][5][11]» (wikipedia)

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