Diastolic blood pressure
«Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels. Most of this pressure is due to work done by the heart by pumping blood through the circulatory system. Used without further specification, "blood pressure" usually refers to the pressure in large arteries of the systemic circulation. Blood pressure is usually expressed in terms of the systolic pressure (maximum during one heartbeat) over diastolic pressure (minimum in between two heartbeats) and is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg), above the surrounding atmospheric pressure.
Blood pressure is one of the vital signs, along with respiratory rate, heart rate, oxygen saturation, and body temperature. Normal resting blood pressure in an adult is approximately 120 millimetres of mercury (16 kPa) systolic, and 80 millimetres of mercury (11 kPa) diastolic, abbreviated "120/80 mmHg". Globally, the average blood pressure, age standardized, has remained about the same since 1975 to the present, at approx. 127/79 mmHg in men and 122/77 mmHg in women.
Traditionally, blood pressure was measured non-invasively using ausculation with a mercury-tubesphygmomanometer. Ausculation is still generally considered to be the gold standard of accuracy for non-invasive blood pressure readings in clinic. However, semi-automated methods have become common, largely due to concerns about potential mercury toxicity, although cost, ease of use and applicability to ambulatory blood pressure or home blood pressure measurements have also influenced this trend. Early automated alternatives to mercury-tube sphygmomanometers were often seriously inaccurate, but modern devices validated to international standards achieve an average difference between two standardized reading methods of 5 mm Hg or less and a standard deviation of less than 8 mm Hg. Most of these semi-automated methods measure blood pressure using oscillometry.
Blood pressure is influenced by cardiac output, total peripheral resistance and arterial stiffness and varies depending on situation, emotional state, activity, and relative health/disease states. In the short term, blood pressure is regulated by baroreceptors which act via the brain to influence the nervous and the endocrine systems.
Blood pressure that is too low is called hypotension, and pressure that is consistently high is hypertension. Both have many causes and may be of sudden onset or of long duration. Long-term hypertension is a risk factor for many diseases, including heart disease, stroke and kidney failure. Long-term hypertension is more common than long-term hypotension, which is usually only diagnosed when it causes symptoms.
The risk of cardiovascular disease increases progressively above 115/75 mmHg, below this level there is limited evidence.
Observational studies demonstrate that people who maintain arterial pressure at the low end of these pressure ranges have much better long-term cardiovascular health. There is an ongoing medical debate over what is the optimal level of blood pressure to target when using drugs to lower blood pressure with hypertension, particularly in older people.
The table shows the most recent classification (2018) of office (or clinic) blood pressure by The Task Force for the management of arterial hypertension of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Society of Hypertension (ESH). Similar thresholds had been adopted by the American Heart Association for adults who are 18 years and older, but in November 2017 the American Heart Association announced revised definitions for blood pressure categories that increased the number of people considered to have high blood pressure.
Blood pressure fluctuates from minute to minute and normally shows a circadian rhythm over a 24-hour period, with highest readings in the early morning and evenings and lowest readings at night. Loss of the normal fall in blood pressure at night is associated with a greater future risk of cardiovascular disease and there is evidence that night-time blood pressure is a stronger predictor of cardiovascular events than day-time blood pressure. Blood pressure varies over longer time periods (months to years) and this variability predicts adverse outcomes. Blood pressure also changes in response to temperature, noise, emotional stress, consumption of food or liquid, dietary factors, physical activity, changes in posture, such as standing-up, drugs, and disease. The variability in blood pressure and the better predictive value of ambulatory blood pressure measurements has led to some authorities, such as The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in UK, to advocate the use of ambulatory blood pressure as the preferred method for diagnosis of hypertension.
Various other factors, such as age and sex, also influence a person's blood pressure. Differences between left and right arm blood pressure measurements tend to be small. However, occasionally there is a consistent difference greater than 10 mmHg which may need further investigation, e.g. for peripheral arterial disease or obstructive arterial disease.
There is no accepted diagnostic standard for hypotension, although pressures less than 90/60 are commonly regarded as hypotensive. In practice blood pressure is considered too low only if symptoms are present.
In pregnancy, it is the fetal heart and not the mother's heart that builds up the fetal blood pressure to drive blood through the fetal circulation. The blood pressure in the fetal aorta is approximately 30 mmHg at 20 weeks of gestation, and increases to approximately 45 mmHg at 40 weeks of gestation.» (wikipedia)
Do something with Diastolic blood pressure
This screen hints what BioMindmap can do with medical objects
- See 11 Biolinks that connect Diastolic blood pressure
- Group Biolinks by type — promoters and inhibitors separately
- Summarize how other objects relate to Diastolic blood pressure
- There are 7 Evidences supporting 11 Diastolic blood pressure Biolinks
Guide for Good Sources list of respected domains.
The ValidityScore showsthe quality of evidences, with max 9.9.
- Diastolic blood pressure Mindmap — near connections
- Mindmap with ValidityScore 5.0 — near connections
- Mindmap of Diastolic blood pressure. and Subnodes: .
- Find Path to another object.
- Build Custom Map
- Instream into nodes that connect into Diastolic blood pressure.
- Outstream from nodes that go out from Diastolic blood pressure.
- Promoters of Diastolic blood pressure
- Add biolink i.e. «X increases Diastolic blood pressure». Intuitively easy.
- Power-start: watch the Intro Video and Guide in Help Center
- Users improve Reputation by getting experienced and validated.
- Ask Telegram Bot to get quick Summary on any object.