CONCLUSIONS: With high prevalence globally, vitamin D deficiency is not uncommon. It is associated with adverse health-related problems. Currentevidence suggests a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases and riskfactors with lowervitamin D levels. Furthermore, low vitamin D is associated with hypertension and higher cardiovascular and all-causemortality. The benefit of vitamin D supplementation to ameliorate the major adverse cardiovascular diseases and hypertension are conflicting with many confounding biases. Therefore, larger randomized clinical trials are warranted to explore the benefits of vitamin D supplementation, which would at least reduce the impact of such high healthproblems.