: At baseline
, runners were younger, leaner, and less likely to smoke than controls
. HAQ-DI was higher for controls
than runners at all time points and increased
in both groups, but to a lesser degree in runners (0.17
, SD 0.34) than controls
(0.36, SD 0.55, p<0.001). Multivariable analyses showed that runners had significantly lower risk
of HAQ-DI=0.5 (HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.46–0.84). At 19 years, 15% of runners had died compared to 34% of controls
. After adjustment
for covariates, runners demonstrated a survival benefit (HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.45–0.82). Disability
and survival curves continued to diverge between groups after 21-years of follow-up as participants approached their ninth decade of life.
: Vigorous exercise
) at middle and older ages
with reduced disability
in later life and a notable survival advantage.