In animal models, Habib et al.  showed that ginger extract inhibitslivercarcinogenesis in Wistar rat through the downregulation of elevatedNF-κB and TNF-α. Thus, ginger may act as an anticancer and anti-inflammatory agent, which could be helpful in prevention and treatment of livercancer.
a significant number of in vitro, in vivo, and epidemiological studies further provide substantial evidence that ginger and its active compounds are effective against wide variety ofhumandiseases including GI cancer.
This review concisely summarizes the role of this pro-inflammatory cytokine during inflammation. It is focused mainly on TNF-α intracellular signaling and its influence on the typical inflammatory features in the organism. Being one of the most important pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α participates in vasodilatation and edema formation, and leukocyte adhesion to epithelium through expression of adhesion molecules; it regulates blood coagulation, contributes to oxidative stress in sites of inflammation, and indirectly induces fever. The connection between TNF-α and cancer is mentioned as well.