We demonstrate that the level of p53 kbhb is dramatically increased in cultured cell treated with BHB and in thymus tissues of fasted mice, and that CBP catalyze p53 kbhb. We show that p53 kbhb results in lower levels of p53 acetylation and reduced expression of the p53 downstream genes p21 and PUMA, as well as reducedcell growth arrest and apoptosis in cultured cell under p53-activating conditions. Similar results were observed in mousethymus tissue under starvation conditions, which result in increasedconcentration of serum BHB, and in response to genotoxic stresscaused by γ-irradiation to activatep53. Our findings thus show that BHB-mediatedp53 kbhb is a novel mechanism of p53 activity regulation, which may explain the link between ketone bodies and tumor, and which may provide promising therapeutic target for cancer treatment.
Histone Kbhb marks are dramatically induced in response to elevated β-hydroxybutyrate levels in cultured cell and in liver from mice subjected to prolongedfasting or streptozotocin-induced diabetic ketoacidosis. In total, we identified 44 histone Kbhb sites, a figure comparable to the known number of histone acetylation sites. By ChIP-seq and RNA-seq analysis, we demonstrate that histone Kbhb is a mark enriched in active gene promoters and that the increased H3K9bhb levels that occur during starvation are associated with genes upregulated in starvation-responsive metabolicpathways. Histone β-hydroxybutyrylation thus represents a new epigenetic regulatory mark that couples metabolism to gene expression, offering a new avenue to study chromatin regulation and diverse functions of β-hydroxybutyrate in the context of important human pathophysiological states, including diabetes, epilepsy, and neoplasia.